Menu of Interventions

Energy Policy
Energy Supply
Energy Demand
 
Social Safety Nets

Energy Demand Interventions

Adjusting prices to provide correct incentives

Transport
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Establish a Road Pricing system.
  • Remove price distortions and eliminate subsidies that mostly benefit the rich.
  • Impose, on private vehicles, higher fuel taxes that reflect the social cost of travelling.
Industry
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Regulate policies for oil-intensive sectors such as fertilizers.
  • Ration subsidized fuels through a monthly quota (e.g., smart card scheme in Malaysia targeting transport operators and fishermen).
Residential
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Regulate pricing policies such that while the interests of the poor are protected, leakages to the non-poor are prevented.
 
Electricity
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Reforming the tariff structure (Demand Response Time-of-day tariff Seasonal tariff).
  • Regulate pricing policies such that while the interests of the poor are protected, leakages to the non-poor are prevented.
 

Promoting Energy Efficiency

Transport
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Mandate relevant authorities to develop transport master plans.
  • Promote the use of alternative transport means (i.e. bicycles).
  • Adopt minimum fuel efficiency standards and mandatory efficiency labelling.
  • Introduce parking restrictions in urban areas.
  • Develop pedestrian precints in urban areas.
  • Promote the use of public transport.
  • Introduce incentives for ‘scrap and replace’ programs aimed at low-income households.
  • Provide financial assistance to purchase fuel efficient vehicles.
  • Provide financial assistance for urban mobility plans for various stakeholders.
  • Set purchase and annual registration taxes for cars on the basis of engine size, weight and efficiency.
  • Set up observatories to gather relevant data and benchmarking.
  • Launch driver-training and mass awareness programs.
Industry
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Adopt labelling and efficiency standards for industrial equipment.
  • Develop a national or regional certification system that verifies the compliance of marketed products with the technical standards.
  • Adopt mandatory energy consumption reporting.
  • Adopt mandatory energy audits for industries above a certain size.
  • Adopt mandatory certification of energy auditors.
  • Promote the nomination of an energy manager of industries above a certain size.
  • Establish mandatory energy saving or DSM plans.
  • Oblige power utilities to purchase electricity from cogenerators.
  • Promote cogeneration through financial and fiscal incentives to invest in equipment.
  • Promote the development of ESCOs.
  • Implement energy efficiency capacity building programs for industry staff.
  • Implement pilot projects of energy efficiency measures.
  • Provide subsidies for energy audits.
  • Provide fiscal incentives to finance energy efficiency measures (VAT and import tariff reduction on energy efficient equipment).
  • Provide financial incentives to finance energy efficiency measures (subsidies, soft loans and revolving energy funds).
Residential
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Adopt mandatory energy efficiency standards for new dwellings and service sector buildings (building codes).
  • Adopt labelling and efficiency standards for household electrical appliances.
  • Set minimum standards and develop labels for kerosene and LPG stoves and heaters.
  • Develop a national or regional certification system that verifies the compliance of marketed products with the technical standards.
  • Develop campaigns to promote knowledge of energy use at household level and energy efficiency measures.
  • Implement large scale CFL deployment considering relatively new options as through programmatic CDM.
  • Promote the introduction of efficient stoves and kerosene lamps.
  • Give rebates for energy-efficient appliances.
Commercial/Public Sector
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Adopt mandatory energy efficiency standards for commercial/public buildings.
  • Adopt mandatory energy audits for commercial/public buildings.
  • Establish partial or total import duty and sales tax exemptions for EE equipment used in energy conservation related projects.
  • Create awareness and disseminate relevant information regarding energy efficiency (EE) among government organizations.
  • Promote the development of ESCOs.
  • Establish energy audit guidelines for commercial buildings and technical reference.
  • Redesign the use of internal public and commercial buildings space to increase air circulation.
  • Develop energy efficiency capacity building programs.
  • Bundle procurement of equipment for several government agencies/buildings – technically focusing on: lighting, heating, air conditioning and ventilation control systems, and building envelope improvements (insulation, roofs, windows)

Economic Sector Shifting

All Sectors
Legislative and regulatory measures Fiscal, financial and institutional measures
  • Shifting to less oil-intensive activities.
  • Moving from manufacturing to services activities.
  • Moving towards less oil-intensive industries (telecommunications, electronics, semiconductors, etc).
  • Adopting less oil-intensive production techniques.
  • Making structural changes to country’s economy